Foundations for Regolith on Wayland (GSoC'22)

Foundations for Regolith on Wayland (GSoC'22)

September 25, 2022

Introduction #

Regolith is a modern desktop environment designed to let you work faster by reducing unnecessary clutter and ceremony. It offers a keyboard based workflow and a tiling window manager that allows efficient management of windows, monitors and workspaces. Built on top of Ubuntu, GNOME Flashback, and i3, Regolith stands on a well-supported and consistent foundation.

In its current implementation, the use i3 window manager binds Regolith to X11. While X11 is fairly mature, it was never built for modern systems and is based on assumptions that are valid only for computers of the ’90s. Some of the issues present in X11 based window managers are low framerates, poor support for HiDPi panels, higher latency, screen tearing etc. Wayland is a display protocol that is written from scratch and aims at simplicity and extensibility Wayland has been in development for quite some time now and its implementations are now stable enough to be considered for daily usage. In fact, many desktop environments like gnome are now providing their wayland implementations as default. Sway window manager was introduced as a drop-in replacement for i3. It is based on wayland and is devoid of most of the issues present in X11 based window managers and compositors.

Note: The work described in this post was done as part of my Google Summer of Code (GSoC) 2022 project under the organisation CCExtractor.

Objective #

The project intends to achieve integration of swaywm with the regolith ecosystem. This means, compatibility with GNOME services, integration of a configuration management system, theming using regolith look and support for other extras provided by regolith in a wayland-based environment.

Integrating sway with regolith #

In this section, I will described everything that I did to achieve sway integration with regolith. This required modifying several existing packages as well as writing code for new scripts and binaries.

Porting the regolith app launcher (ilia) to wayland #

After having a discussion with Ken, we decided that the most important part of a tiling window manager setup from a user’s perspective is the app-launcher. Regolith on X11 ships with its own app launcher called ilia. It also provides several features apart from launching apps. This includes showing keybindings, launching terminal commands, list applications and workspaces and search files just to name a few.

Ilia is written in vala and GTK. This means, ilia had support for wayland right out of the box. Despite this inherent compatibility, ilia seemed to crash everytime. After looking into the logs, I realised that the issue was not with ilia but with the way wayland roots (wlr) handles windows that need to be ignored by the compositor. Turns out, wlr provides an extension to the wayland protocols called wlr-layer-shell in order to handle panels and other applications that need to be positioned automatically. A client implementation of this protocol for GTK based applications is provided by the library gtk-layer-shell. To maintain support for both X11 and wayland, I check the XDG_SESSION_TYPE environment variable and use gtk-layer-shell library only if the session type is wayland.

Currently, the wayland compatible version of ilia is not packaged and exists in a seperate branch.

Trawl - A backend agnostic configuration manager #

Wayland lacks support for Xresources natively and requires the use XWayland. This might not be desirable as it forces users to enable Xwayland forcing them to be a part of a legacy ecosystem. This is the reason why we decided to create a display backend agnostic configuration manager that can be used by various applications. To maintain compatibility with the existing regolith ecosystem it was crutial to replicate the format and functionaility XResources as much as possible. Trawl is a file based configuration management system written in rust that tries to fulfill these requirements.

Trawl is comprised of two parts - Configuration Daemon (trawld) and Trawl Client (trawldb). For IPC, it uses the DBus specification, which allows other applications to access trawl resources with ease. In fact, trawl comes with libraries for C and rust that make interaction with trawl clients hassle free. Trawl also tries to replicate most of the features provided by Xresources by replicating the functionality available using the xrdb CLI.

Sway - adding the set_from_resource command #

Sway aims to be a drop in alternative for i3. But there are some features which make sense only within the X11 ecosystem, and one such feature is the set_from_resource command in the configs. This command allows users to set variables within the i3 configurations by querying XResources for specific keys. Due to the lack of XResources alternatives that are display backend agnostic, the creators of sway decided not to implement it, even if its at the cost of breaking compatibility with i3 configurations.

Regolith relies heavily on XResources based configurations. This helps acheive functional configurations to some extent, such that you can replicate your window manager setup just by copying over your XResources and config partials. In order to maintain a consistent experience across the board, it was absolutely crutial to re-implement set_from_resource for sway.

I created a fork of sway called sway-regolith which adds the set_from_resource command. In order to communicate with the trawl demon, I used the wrapper functions provided by the libtrawldb library, which provides several wrapper functions for the DBus methods. Finally, I renamed the sway binary to sway-regolith in order to allow the fork and the upstream versions of sway to co-exist.

Regolith-displayd #

In regolith, the de facto way for managing and changing settings is the use of gnome-control-center. Since the displays are managed by X11 in both i3 and Gnome on X11, the display panel of gnome-control-center works right out of the box. However, in the case of wayland based compositors and window managers like sway and mutter on wayland, the diplays are managed by the compositor itself. So gnome-control-center can manage displays only when mutter is the compositor in use.

On looking into gnome-control-center’s codebase, I discovered that the display settings are applied by communicating with the org.mutter.DisplayConfig DBus interface. So I created regolith-displayd, which creates a DBus interface with the same name. It primarily provides two DBus methods - GetCurrentState and ApplyMonitorsConfig. The GetCurrentState method gets the current configuration of monitors and maps it into a format understandable by gnome-control-center. Similarly, calls to the ApplyMonitorsConfig method applies the display settings changes made from gnome-control-center by mapping them into a format understandable by the IPC interface of sway.

regolith-displayd also polls the sway IPC interface to check for changes in display configuration. If a change is detected, the MonitorsChanged signal is emmitted. gnome-control-center reacts to this message by making a call to GetCurrentState.

In order to achieve display configuration persistance, regolith-displayd generates kanshi profiles based on the displays that are currently in use. These configurations are then automatically applied whenever the same monitors are connected.

Regolith-session #

regolith-session package is probably the most important part of regolith as it essentially ties i3 with GNOME flashback. This package is also partly responsible for the regolith-look related functionality. The code for wayland version of the package can be found in the wayland-dev branch.

Migrating regolith-session to wayland required work on the following sections.

Session initialization script (regolith-session-wayland) #

This script is responsible for loading the trawl resources set by the user, loading current look information, reformatting pango markup for workspace names, registering the session with gnome session manager and launching sway with the regolith configuration file.

/usr/share/applications/regolith-wayland.desktop #

This application file executes the regolith-session-wayland script. This application file will be read by gnome-session-binary while loading the Required Components from the session file.

/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/regolith-wayland.session #

This file lists out the components required by the session in order to work correctly. If all the required components cannot be loaded, the session ends abruptly with an error. Most of these components are gnome-settings-daemon plugins. If the session is loaded using gnome-session --builtin, it launches the required components using their respective application files instead of launching their systemd services. The regolith-sway desktop file is also included in the required components section which launches ultimately starts the regolith session.

/usr/share/wayland-sessions/regolith-sway.dektop #

This file is read by the display manager / login manager and shows the entry Regolith on Wayland in the login screen. The command /usr/bin/gnome-session --builtin --session=regolith-wayland is executed as soon as you login. This command looks for /usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/regolith-wayland.session and loads the required components.

/usr/lib/regolith/ #

This provides functionality that is used in multiple scripts (related to both X11 and wayland based sessions). It also contains some variables that are required by many of the scripts related to regolith-session. I’ve added several functions and environment variables that are required to provide functionality equivalent to what is provided by Regolith on X11 sessions.

Regolith look script (/usr/bin/regolith-look) #

This provides theming related functionallity, which is one of the defining features of the regolith ecosystem. I’ve added a check to determine if the current session type (X11 or Wayland). If the current session is wayland, trawlcat is used instead of xrescat and swaymsg reload is used instead of i3-msg refresh. When loading a look, if the current session is wayland, the configurations are loaded into trawl and if the session is X11, the resources are loaded using xrdb as XResources.

Regolith Look #

The functionality of the regolith-look script (located at /usr/bin/regolith-look) has been discussed in the previous section. In order to apply the theme, a loader script is required. This can either be provided by the look or the user. If no loader is provided, the default loader script (present in the regolith-look-default package) is used. To make this loader script compatible with trawl in wayland, I had to check if the current session is wayland and set the RESOURCE_GETTER variable to trawlcat accordingly.

Regolith also uses gnome-terminal by default. So in order to provide terminal theming in wayland, the regolith-init-term-profile script also needs to use trawlcat as resource getter. This script is responsible for changing the terminal profile theme.

Regolith-inputd #

Similar to outut management, input management in wayland is also dependent on the compositor. This is the reason why changing input settings from gnome-control-center doesn’t work out of the box. In order to get the input panel of gnome-control-center to work, I created regolith-inputd, which monitors the gsettings schema org.gnome.desktop.peripherals. This allows to map changes in input properties to sway configuration commands which are then applied using the sway IPC interface.

What’s next? #

You can track work related sway integration in this GitHub projects page. All contributions are more than welcome. I have really enjoyed working on this project and I plan to continue even after I’m done with the final evaluation for Google Summer of Code.

What doesn’t work #

  • Lock Screen (Alternatives - swaylock)
  • GNOME OSD overlays (Alternatives - wob)
  • GNOME flashback / gnome-shell-related stuff
  • Using any Display Manager other than GDM 3 causes issues
  • swaybar status (requires several reloads to work properly)
  • ilia keybindings page
  • gnome-session-quit popup